World Diabetes Day
World Diabetes Day raises global awareness of diabetes - its escalating rates around the world and how to prevent the illness in most cases. Started by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and WHO, the Day is celebrated on 14 November to mark the birthday of Frederick Banting who, along with Charles Best, was instrumental in the discovery of insulin in 1922, a life-saving treatment for diabetes patients.
WHO estimates that more than 346 million people worldwide have diabetes.
India is home to over 61 million diabetic patients - an increase from 50.8 million last year. By 2030, India's diabetes burden is expected to cross the 100 million mark as against 87 million earlier estimated. The country is also the largest contributor to regional mortality with 983, 000 deaths caused due to diabetes this year.
Every sixth diabetic in the world is an Indian, making the country the world's diabetes capital.
The report says India will be a major driving force for the increase of diabetes in South- East Asia to 8.4 per cent in 2030 from the current seven per cent. This will be mainly because of increasing life expectancy and urbanisation in India.
Diabetes is usually a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood.
There are two major types of diabetes. The causes and risk factors are different for each type:
· Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause is unknown.
· Type 2 diabetes makes up most diabetes cases. It most often occurs in adulthood. However, because of high obesity rates, teens and young adults are now being diagnosed with it. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it.
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes.
High blood sugar levels can cause several symptoms, including:
· Blurry vision
· Excess thirst
· Urinating often
· Weight loss
After many years, diabetes can lead to other serious problems:
· One could have eye problems, including trouble seeing (especially at night) and light sensitivity. One could become blind.
· Ones feet and skin can get painful sores and infections. Sometimes, foot or leg may need to be removed.
· Nerves in the body can become damaged, causing pain, tingling, and a loss of feeling.
· Because of nerve damage, one could have problems digesting the food you eat. This can cause trouble going to the bathroom. Nerve damage can also make it harder for men to have an erection.
· Fasting blood glucose level -- diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than 126 mg/dL twice. Levels between 100 and 126 mg/dL are called impaired fasting glucose or pre-diabetes. These levels are risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
· Hemoglobin A1c test --
o Normal: Less than 5.7%
o Pre-diabetes: 5.7% - 6.4%
o Diabetes: 6.5% or higher
· Oral glucose tolerance test -- diabetes is diagnosed if glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL after 2 hours of drinking a glucose drink.
Keeping an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle may prevent type 2 diabetes.
There is no way yet to prevent type 1 diabetes.